1 – It was the teaching of the Prophet SAWS (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) to venerate this day, honour it and single it out for special acts of worship that belong exclusively to this day. In Fajr (early morning prayer) on Friday he used to recite the Soorahs ‘Alif-laam-meem tanzeel’ (al-Sajdah, no. 32) and ‘Hal ata ‘ala’l-insaan’ (al-Insaan, no. 76).
Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: the Prophet SAWS (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used to recite these two soorahs in the Fajr prayer on Friday because they refer to what happened and will happen on that day, for they speak of the creation of Adam, the resurrection and the gathering of mankind, all of which happened or will happen on a Friday. So reciting them on this day is a reminder to his ummah (nation) of what has happened and what is yet to come. This is one of the special features of Friday.
2 – It is mustahabb (recommended) to send lots of blessings upon the Prophet SAWS (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) on the ay of Friday and the night before, because he said: “Send lots of blessings upon me on Friday and the night before.” (Narrated by al-Bayhaqi, 3/249; classed as saheeh (sound) by al-Arna’oot).
3 – Jumu’ah (Friday) prayers are held on this day; this is one of the most strongly-affirmed duties of Islam, and one of the greatest gatherings of the Muslims. It is the greatest and most obligatory gathering in which they come together, apart from ‘Arafah [a place near Makkah (Mecca) where the pilgrims stand and pray during the Hajj or pilgrimage]. Whoever neglects Jumu’ah prayers out of carelessness, Allaah will place a seal over his heart. The people of Paradise will be brought closer (to Allaah) on the Day of Resurrection and they will see Allaah sooner, commensurate with how close they were to the imam on the day of Jumu’ah and how early they came to Jumu’ah prayers.
4 – The command to do ghusl (take a bath for the purpose of purification) on Friday; this command is most emphatic.
5 – Wearing perfume on Friday; this is better than wearing perfume on any other day of the week.
6 – Cleaning the teeth with the siwaak (tooth stick); this is better than using the siwaak on any other day.
7 – Going to the prayers early.
8 – Keeping oneself busy with prayer, dhikr (remembering Allaah) and reading Qur’aan until the imaam comes out to give the khutbah (sermon).
9 – Listening attentively to the khutbah, because listening to it is obligatory according to the more correct of the two scholarly opinions. If a person fails to do that he is engaging in idle talk, and whoever does that has not prayed Jumu’ah. In al-Musnad a marfoo’ report [i.e., a report which is attributed to the Prophet SAWS (peace and blessings be upon him)] states: “The one who says to his companion, ‘Be quiet and listen,’ has not prayed Jumu’ah.” (Narrated by Ahmad, 2034; classed as hasan by al-Arna’oot. See Haashiyat Zaad al-Ma’aad, 1/377. Also narrated by al-Bukhaari (934) and Muslim (851), with the wording: “If you say to your companion, ‘Be quiet and listen,’ on a Friday when the imaam is delivering the khutbah, then you have engaged in idle talk.”)
10 – Reading Soorat al-Kahf (no. 18) during the day of Friday. It was narrated that the Prophet SAWS (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Whoever reads Soorat al-Kahf on a Friday, light will shine for him from beneath his feet to the clouds of the sky, which will shine on him on the Day of Resurrection, and he will be forgiven from one Friday to the next.” (Narrated by al-Haakim, 2/368; classed as saheeh by al-Arna’oot).11- Ibn Maajah narrated in his Sunan that Abu Lubaabah ibn ‘Abd al-Mundhir said: “The Messenger of Allaah SAWS (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: ‘Friday is the best and greatest of days before Allaah, and it is greater before Allaah than the day of al-Adha (the Feast of Sacrifice) and the day of al-Fitr (the Feast of Breaking the Fast). It has five characteristics: on this day Allaah created Adam; on this day Adam came down to earth; on this day Allaah caused Adam to die; on this day there is an hour during which no one asks Allaah for something but He will grant it to him, so long as he does not ask for something haraam (forbidden); and on this day the Hour [i.e., the Day of Judgement] will begin, so there is no angel who is close to Allaah, no heaven, no earth, no wind, no mountain and no tree that does not feel some apprehension on Friday.” (Narrated by Ibn Maajah, 1084. Al-Busayri said: its isnaad is hasan, and it was classed as saheeh in Saheeh Abi Dawood, 888).
12 – It is mustahabb (recommended) to wear the best clothes one has on Friday. Imaam Ahmad narrated in his Musnad that Abu Ayyoob said: “I heard the Messenger of Allaah SAWS (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) say, ‘Whoever takes a bath on Friday, puts on perfume if he has some, wears his best clothes then goes out , walking in a dignified manner until he reaches the mosque, then he prostrates in prayer if he wants and does not disturb anybody, then he remains quiet until the imaam comes out and he prays, that will be an expiation from one Friday to the next.’” (Narrated by Ahmad in al-Musnad, 23059; classed as hasan by al-Ana’oot).
14 – It is a day on which sins are expiated. In Saheeh al-Bukhaari it is narrated that Salmaan al-Faarisi said: “The Messenger of Allaah SAWS (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: ‘No man takes a bath on Friday and purifies himself as much as he can, and makes his hair tidy, and puts on perfume, then goes out, and does not come between two people, then prays as Allaah decrees for him and listens attentively when the imaam speaks, but he will be forgiven for his bad deeds between this Friday and the other.’” (al-Bukhaari, 843).